RfQ
Lead Acid Batteries Recycling

Lead Acid Batteries Recycling

Why recycling? Lead is one of the most sustainable raw materials on the planet. Recycling is more energy-efficient than mining and smelting new lead. The lead from a dead battery can be refined into new alloy over and over again making much better use of existing resources. Its sustainability is unmatched and serves as a buffer to raw material price fluctuations that could compromise the practicality of commercial use. The supply of lead is not dependent on one dominating international source, unlike material used in some other forms of energy power storage.   Recycling Process The process begins with the used battery being broken apart with a machine that hammers the it into many pieces. The pieces are placed into a vat, where lighter plastic floats and all other materials sink to the bottom. The pieces are separated into three parts, the plastic, lead, and battery acid. The polypropylene plastic bits are washed and dried, then sent to a plant to be melted and formed into pellets, which are sold to battery manufacturers for use in new batteries. The lead parts are heated in a furnace until molten. Impurities in the lead float to the top and are removed. The remaining lead is sent to manufacturers for use in new batteries. Old battery acids are treated with a base solution that neutralizes them and turns the acid into water that is tested for safety, then reused. A small portion of the acid is processed into sodium sulfate, used in many manufacturing processes, in glass and in laundry soaps.   For additional information regarding Lead Acid Battery Recycling click... read more
On Line Energy Management Strategy of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Generation System

On Line Energy Management Strategy of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Generation System

Authors: Spyros Voutetakis (1), Chrysovalantou Ziogou (1), Dimitris Ipsakis (1), Fotis Stergiopoulos (1,3), Simira Papadopoulou (1,3), Costas Elmasides (2) Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (C.P.E.R.I.), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CE.R.T.H.), P.O. Box 60361, 57001, Thessaloniki, Greece Systems Sunlight S.A., Neo Olvio, 67200 Xanthi, Greece Department of Automation, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki (ATEITH), P.O. Box 141, 54700, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract The core aim of the presented study, is the analysis, development and implementation of an integrated control framework for the on-line energy management of an autonomous hybrid solar-wind stand-alone system. The systemic development of the power management strategy (PMS), is based on a novel and flexible methodology that enables the concurrent handling of the subsystems interactions. The hybrid system is installed at the premises of Systems Sunlight S.A. in Neo Olvio, Xanthi and meets a few kW variable load demand. The operation of each subsystem is managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) that allows remote monitoring and control. Introduction The use of renewable energy sources (RES) for the production of electrical energy can contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse emissions and protect the sensitive environment from further degradation. Solar and wind energy are considered an excellent choice in stand-alone applications, since they are abundant, free, clean and inexhaustible. Nevertheless, the wide fluctuation of climate data requires the utilization of storage systems in the forms of lead-acid accumulators (short-term) and hydrogen production/utilization units (long-term). Through such an approach system autonomy is improved, shut-downs due to power deficiency are minimized, while system flexibility is maintained at a higher level. The aim of this work is to... read more