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Paper on "Deployment and Operation of an Isolated Smart Grid"

Paper on "Deployment and Operation of an Isolated Smart Grid"

A paper* to be presented at the 35th International Telecommunications Energy Conference   Summary / Abstract This paper presents the design, deployment and operation of an isolated smart grid in Xanthi, Greece. The overall topology and the architecture of the grid is analyzed, including the power production, transmission, consumption and the communication infrastructure. The grid consists of three smaller microgrids that are connected together through a common DC bus. Each microgrid consists of equipment exploiting various renewable energy sources, a local load, a battery and a diesel generator. In the third microgrid, hydrogen is also utilised by a long term energy storage facility. A case study shows that when the three microgrids are connected allowing energy exchange among them, the overall efficiency is greatly increased as the usage of the diesel generators is reduced and the available energy is fully exploited.   1. Introduction Traditional power grids consist of four distinctive components: generation-transmission-distribution-consumption. The energy flow is unidirectional from the few central power generation stations to the consumer. This topology suffers from three main problems; the efficiency significantly drops due to losses during the transmission stage, the grid is not designed for equipment facilitating distributed generation such as Fuel Cells (FCs) and Photovoltaic panels (PVs), while the effects of locally observed malfunctions or other similar problems are easily propagated throughout the entire grid [1]. For this reason, an information grid is placed on top of the power grid and with the use of modern power electronics; energy and information can easily be transmitted in multiple directions within the grid [2]. Thus, it is possible to use distributed sources for... read more
Lead-Based Batteries

Lead-Based Batteries

The History of the Battery Although there is evidence of electrochemical cells dating back to 2000 years ago, the story of the first true battery starts with an Italian physicist by the name of Alessandro Volta. In 1800 Volta created the first battery based on pairs of copper and zinc discs, the Voltaic Pile. It was with the invention in 1836 of the Daniell Cell, which consisted of a copper pot filled with a copper sulphate solution, that batteries would be made that could deliver a reliable current and be put to industrial use. The first rechargeable battery, or secondary cell, was a lead-acid cell battery invented in 1859 by the French inventor Gaston Planté, whose work laid the foundation for the modern lead-based battery industry. The first practical lead-acid battery was developed by Henri Tudor in 1886 and was manufactured first in Luxembourg and then in Belgium, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. Since then there has been steady improvement of this battery technology in parallel with other technologies such as the first dry cell (a battery with a non-liquid electrolyte), the zinc-carbon battery, in 1887, the nickel-cadmium battery in 1899, the nickel-iron battery in 1903, the nickel hydrogen battery in the early 1970s, nickel-metalhydride batteries in the late 1970s, and lithium and lithium-ion batteries since the late 1980s. Batteries Today Batteries come in all sizes, from personal batteries used to power MP3 players, toys, radios and smoke detectors, and rechargeable batteries in mobile phones, laptops and portable DVD players, to industrial and automotive batteries used to crank internal combustion engines in cars (starting, lighting and ignition, or... read more