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Lead-Based Batteries

Lead-Based Batteries

The History of the Battery Although there is evidence of electrochemical cells dating back to 2000 years ago, the story of the first true battery starts with an Italian physicist by the name of Alessandro Volta. In 1800 Volta created the first battery based on pairs of copper and zinc discs, the Voltaic Pile. It was with the invention in 1836 of the Daniell Cell, which consisted of a copper pot filled with a copper sulphate solution, that batteries would be made that could deliver a reliable current and be put to industrial use. The first rechargeable battery, or secondary cell, was a lead-acid cell battery invented in 1859 by the French inventor Gaston Planté, whose work laid the foundation for the modern lead-based battery industry. The first practical lead-acid battery was developed by Henri Tudor in 1886 and was manufactured first in Luxembourg and then in Belgium, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. Since then there has been steady improvement of this battery technology in parallel with other technologies such as the first dry cell (a battery with a non-liquid electrolyte), the zinc-carbon battery, in 1887, the nickel-cadmium battery in 1899, the nickel-iron battery in 1903, the nickel hydrogen battery in the early 1970s, nickel-metalhydride batteries in the late 1970s, and lithium and lithium-ion batteries since the late 1980s. Batteries Today Batteries come in all sizes, from personal batteries used to power MP3 players, toys, radios and smoke detectors, and rechargeable batteries in mobile phones, laptops and portable DVD players, to industrial and automotive batteries used to crank internal combustion engines in cars (starting, lighting and ignition, or... read more
Lead-Acid Batteries at a Glance (Advantages-Applications-Costs)

Lead-Acid Batteries at a Glance (Advantages-Applications-Costs)

Advantages Reliable. Over 140 years of development. Robust. Tolerant to overcharging. Low internal impedance. Can deliver very high currents. Indefinite shelf life if stored without electrolyte. Can be left on trickle or float charge for prolonged periods. Wide range of sizes and capacities available. The world’s most recycled product. Applications Automotive and traction applications. Standby/Back-up/Emergency power for electrical installations. Submarines UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supplies) Lighting High current drain applications. Sealed battery types available for use in portable equipment. Costs Low cost Flooded lead acid cells are one of the least expensive sources of battery power available. Deep cycle cells may cost up to double the price of the equivalent flooded cells. Varieties of Lead Acid Batteries Lead Calcium Batteries | Lead acid batteries with electrodes modified by the addition of Calcium providing the following advantages: More resistant to corrosion, overcharging, gassing, water usage, and self-discharge, all of which shorten battery life. Larger electrolyte reserve area above the plates. Higher Cold Cranking Amp ratings. Little or No maintenance. Lead Antimony Batteries | Lead acid batteries with electrodes modified by the addition of Antimony providing the following advantages: Improved mechanical strength of electrodes – important for EV and deep discharge applications Reduced internal heat and water loss. Longer service life than Calcium batteries. Easier to recharge when completely discharged. Lower cost. Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) Batteries | Also called Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) batteries. This construction is designed to prevent electrolyte loss through evaporation, spillage and gassing and this in turn prolongs the life of the battery and eases maintenance. Instead of simple vent caps on the cells to let gas escape, VRLA... read more